In 1977 Historic Salem released the Salem Handbook, as prepared by the architectural firm Anderson Notter, Inc. (now Finegold Alexander). At the time this book was one of the few published resources that provided homeowners with tangible advice on conserving the architectural history and materials of a residential building. Forty years later hundreds of books on home maintenance are supplemented by websites and TV shows with hacks and trends that cover the entire spectrum of rehabilitation. Yet this Salem Handbook, in addition to its nostalgic charm, continues to provide clear, easy to understand information on how to care for a historic home, free from trademarked product links or celebrity branding.
Historic Salem, therefore, presents an ongoing series of posts that will “re-print”, online, the 1977 Handbook, with relevant updates. Information presented is specific to Salem (that’s part of its charm!) but pertinent to any historic homeowner.
Much of the pride we share as residents of this city comes from living in or near old buildings. Our older neighborhoods bring the past alive for residents and visitors alike, creating a legacy to pass on to future generations. We appreciate Salem’s architectural diversity and realize that if it is removed it is unlikely to be replaced. And while taking care of a historic home can be problematic we subscribe to the preservation maxim, espoused by the National Park Service:
“Generally, it is better to preserve than repair,
During home repair and renovation there are often questions about a building’s style, design, upkeep, and sustainable methods and materials. This Salem Handbook web-series will address these major concerns of preservation. First, we want to assist in identifying the stylistic features of Salem houses so that homeowners will take them into consideration before starting renovation and maintenance projects.
Second, we provide design guidelines by suggesting ways a homeowner can treat architectural details, yards, parking areas, and sidewalks so these visible elements will enhance their home and the rest of their neighborhood. Third, we direct attention to the basic structural problems that must be treated to avoid unnecessary deterioration of otherwise sound buildings. Fourth, throughout the series we will address sustainability. Historic buildings have an inherent sustainability and materials and methods used in maintenance and upgrades can further improve this quality.
We are glad you are here. Remember that the future of the built environment depends on what you do to maintain or improve it. Look around you, consider what you see, and work with your neighbors. Salem has been here for nearly 400 years. She has something to say. (This applies to other historic cities and neighborhoods; the beauty of a historic place is that each one has a unique history and therefore message – what is your neighborhood telling you?)
We look forward to sharing these chapters with you in the coming weeks:
A Guide to the Styles
Maintaining Your House
How to Get Things Done in Salem
The area we know today as Salem Common was swampland when the English arrived in Naumkeag in 1626. Over time, they adapted it for public use as a pen for livestock and a training field for the local militia. On November 16, 1713, a group of the proprietors of Salem’s common lands met and voted that the land used as a training field remain “as Itt now layes” for the public use of the town in perpetuity.
In 1801, in an early example of Salem citizens pooling their resources together for the common good (and for the good of the Common), Elias Hasket Derby Jr. led a committee of Salem residents in an effort to raise money for an intensive landscaping project aimed at making Salem Common more accessible to the public. Through the sale of subscriptions, the committee raised over $2,000 to grade and fill the land and plant poplar trees and shrubs. The following year, by order of the town selectmen, the common was renamed Washington Square in honor of the nation’s first President.
Plan of Salem Common, 1800: "Plan of Salem Common made about the year 1800 for the use of the Committee who had the direction in levelling the common & filling up the dirty pond-holes. Gen. Derby was chairman of this Committe & we collected by subscription about 2000[?] to pay the expense." (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library)
In 1805, a collection of public and private funds was again taken up for the construction of four ornamental gateways to the common, designed by local architect Salem McIntire (a replica of the arched western gate can be seen today). A little over a decade later, a new wooden fence was erected around the perimeter of the common. This wooden fence and its gates were replaced by a more ornamental fence made of cast-iron in 1850.
Like so many of the things we enjoy in Salem, Salem Common and its historic fence are a result of our community coming together to make this a better place to live and a special place to visit. Salem is a community that has traditionally treasured and protected its unique history and heritage, and that history and heritage are what draws multitudes of people to our city every year. Historic Salem, Inc. supports the City in its efforts to complete a multi-phase restoration project on Salem Common Fence in order to preserve it for future generations. If we lose the fence, we lose another connection to our rich past, and we become a little less special, and a little bit more like any other place.
The statement that a building is just too run down or outdated to be saved is not so much fact as platitude. It tends to be thrown out to the crowd when a developer is faced with funding or permits that hinge on preservation considerations, to defend against a community concerned with losing a treasured building or the character that it brings to the neighborhood. This statement gives the impression that the need for demolition is out of the owner’s control. The audience is led to assume that the owner spent considerable time weighing the options and are just as upset as the rest of us that they have to tear it down. But often what it really means is, “We wanted to use this site for something else and we never really considered using the building at all.”
“This building is too far gone to save” is an easy myth to bust because there are no shortage of vibrant, beautiful buildings that were once incredibly run down. In fact, in the 1960s most of the buildings in downtown Salem were labeled as “blighted,” a technical synonym for “too far gone to save.” The Historic Salem Jail, once almost impossible to imagine as anything other than a jail, now houses incredible, unique apartments. Historic Salem has given preservation awards to many projects with incredible before and after montages, including one of the original farm houses in North Salem.
Claiming a building is “too far gone” gaslights the community. Anyone who questions this claim can be labeled unreasonable and obstructionist; a crazy preservationist opposed to change. Certainly, there are instances when a rehabbing an old building does not make financial sense or does not meet programmatic needs – in which case, the owner or developer should respect their audience, present their rationale and engage in the debate. Imagine a permitting process where the discussion is about value of a project beyond the developer’s financial concerns.
What social, historical and community value does the building have? How can that be incorporated into a project?
What environmental value do existing materials have? Does it outweigh the convenience of demolition?
What social and community development value does the proposed project offer? Does that tip the scale towards a change in the urban fabric?
Analyzing the social calculus of a project ensures that both developer and neighborhood benefit from the steady march of progress. Let’s replace "it's too far gone" with a real conversation about the monetary value and social values of our community.
The House of the Seven Gables Settlement Association was founded in 1910 by Salem philanthropist and early historic preservationist Caroline Emmerton. Capitalizing on the Turner-Ingersoll Mansion's connection to Nathaniel Hawthorne (who used it as the setting for his 1851 novel, The House of the Seven Gables), Emmerton rescued the 1668 mansion, restored it, and opened it to the public as a museum, using ticket sales specifically to fund social services for Salem's newly arrived immigrants. Over the past century the Trustees of The House of the Seven Gables Settlement Association have followed Emmerton’s leadership and stewardship example. Over time they have acquired and maintained additional historic structures, including the Retire Beckett House (1655), the Hooper-Hathaway House (1682), Hawthorne's Birth Place (c.1750), and the Phippen House (1782). In 2007, the campus was designated a National Historic Landmark District, signifying its high level of historic integrity and the significant role it plays in interpreting 3 ½ centuries' worth of stories relevant not only to the heritage of the region, but to the architectural, economic, literary, and social history of the nation. Most recently the Settlement Association has undertaken stabilization of the Summer beam in the Gables, allowing the dining room to be open to the public as well as more practical projects including four new roofs. Through the efforts of the House of the Seven Gables Settlement Association we see an important example of stewardship of our shared history and culture. This year the Gables is proud to celebrate the Turner-Ingersoll Mansion’s 350th anniversary and HSI was proud to present them with an award for a Century of Stewardship.
Another charming accessory structure is found behind the Ropes Mansion. The impeccably restored potting shed accessed through the back gate of the garden adds stature to the professionally kept Ropes garden. The shed started life as a garage in the early 1900s and was moved back from the street when the greenhouse portion was added around the 1930s. After storm damage in 2015, the restoration efforts focused on sourcing old growth tidewather “sinker” Cyprus to replace damaged framing for the glass. Any unbroken material was able to be reused. Proving that details matter, the restoration “wavy” glass installed on vertical surfaces is simple yet stunning. This season the greenhouse and shed will be used for education, plant propagation and winter plant protection. The Peabody Essex Museum assembled an all-star team for this elegant project including: American Steeple and Tower, Cassidy Bothers Forge, Robert Ouellette, Weaver Glass, John Jeffers and Precision Painting.
The Greek Revival building located at 55-57 Federal Street was constructed c. 1836 by Joshua Loring as a double residential home. The building located at 59 Federal Street was constructed c. 1850 as a residential property. By 1890 the buildings were connected by a two-story ell. Portions of both buildings were later renovated for office use and over time the buildings fell into disrepair.
When Salem Renewal LLC purchased the buildings, they continued their proud tradition of rehabilitation. In partnership with Seger Architects of Salem, they converted the buildings into 9 residential units. The exterior materials including the siding, trim, windows, and roof were all restored or replaced and the interior woodwork, fireplaces, and staircase were completely refurbished. Proposed work qualified for Historic Tax Credits, which require stringent adherence to the Secretary of the Interior's Standards and the buildings are now a proud complement to the historic neighborhood of the Federal Street district.
The owners of the historic Harris-Webb House at 265-267 Lafayette Street began restoring it in 2017. After they repainted the wooden clapboards, incised corner pilasters, paired curvilinear cornice brackets with pendants, open pediment dormers, and thin segmental-arch window caps, they began work on the front entrance porch, which was in serious disrepair. The owners took the opportunity to restore the historic appearance of the porch – what Bryant Tolles called “pleasantly light and understated.” New mahogany turned balusters were created to match others found on Lafayette Street. New handrails and column bases were also installed. Typically the Historical Commission does not nominate a restoration project until all work has been completed, however, in this instance, the commission recommended honoring the property owners’ efforts to date as a means to address conflicts between historic building designs and modern building codes. After the owners of 265-267 Lafayette Street installed the new porch railings, they were notified that the railings did not comply with current code requirements for railing height, even though they matched the original porch design. The Massachusetts State Building Code allows exemptions for museum buildings only; there are no exemptions for buildings listed in the National Register or designated within a local historic district. The Historical Commission will be assisting the owner in seeking an appeal of the building code requirements to allow the retention of the historically appropriate railings.
Homeowners Tim Obert & Matt Obey facilitated a complete rehabilitation of the exterior of 170 Federal Street. A few highlights include the restoration of all original wooden sash windows, the complete restoration and extension of the original wrought iron fence, and the installation of a brick sidewalk and driveway. In addition, the original stained glass entrance doors were restored, reconstructed, and re-leaded, and arched second-floor windows previously hidden behind rectangular storm windows were exposed. The granite entrance steps and the original carriage step were reset and the garage restored, with new swing-out wooden doors fabricated and installed. Deteriorated soffit woodwork was also restored around the entire roofline. Many people were responsible for 170 Federal’s transformation, most notably McLaughlin Masonry, DeAngelis Iron Work, and carpenter John Obey.
Congress Street Residences is a significant neighborhood revitalization initiative in the Point neighborhood by the North Shore Community Development Coalition. Through the restoration and preservation of eight distressed historic buildings in the neighborhood, the North Shore CDC created 64 quality affordable homes and a community center. The organization acquired the buildings in December 2014, began the project in Spring 2016, and completed the restorations in November 2017. The rehab of the buildings included roof, mechanical systems, and window replacement, extensive masonry repairs, all new kitchens and baths, and unit reconfiguration in most buildings. Once overlooked, North Shore CDC has transformed these decrepit buildings into affordable housing that people want to call home. Before, these 66 units rehabbed– apartment layouts were not suitable for modern living and there was a lack of overall care for the buildings. Today, 64 modern, affordable homes have been restored to incorporate the historic charm of the buildings like built-in cabinets and decorative trim. North Shore CDC also transformed two former units into a community space called Espacio, located at 105 Congress Street. This 2,000-square -foot space fully restored the exterior look of the building, bringing back the commercial storefront and updating the brick façade. Espacio is also home to the nonprofit’s Family Resource Center – a place for free programming for community members to take ESL classes, dance lessons, Immigration Services, and more. This multi-functioning space brings back the original layout of the building, and includes modern amenities such as a colorful kitchen and conference room. This project is an excellent example of long-term planning and maintenance of historic buildings, to the benefit of the entire community.
Christopher and Stacey Norkun’s search for the perfect home took over two years and 80+ showings. Finally, 53 Summer Street emerged - a weather-beaten 1756 gambrel that surely scared away most buyers. This house was once considered for demolition during the 1914 Salem Fire as a way to interrupt the path of the conflagration. Though spared that fate, it had been neglected in the intervening century and to say the house was in “rough shape” is an understatement. Nevertheless, all Chris and Stacey saw was potential. They could see past the rotted windows, the marred floors, and the ceilings that were caving in from years of water damage. They were bravely ready to take it on and become stewards of its history; to give something back to Salem, the city that has always held a special place in their hearts. Exterior work completed on 53 Summer Street includes the repair and replacement of the roof; the repointing of the fieldstone foundation; the replacement of 26 windows and all surrounding trim and sills; the removal and repair of all exterior dry rot; the painting of the exterior; and the rebuilding of the front steps. Interior work includes the repair of plaster damage from sill rot; the repair of plaster ceilings due to heavy water damage; the repair and restoration of the hardwood floors; and the renovation of the Front Parlor, Dining Parlor, Bathroom, Master Bedroom, and Guest Bedroom.
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